## Starting a Business – What Steps Should You Take First – Part 2

Question: What is real cost?

A1: Say you are selling a pen and it cost 35 cents you can sell it for \$ 1 and make 65 cents right, WRONG! You have other expense to consider like advertising, bank fees, shipping fees, loan or credit card, rent (store or online) ink, paper and there maybe more. If you are making the item you are selling you must look at the price of all of its parts. Lets look at these a little closer.

If you are making a product for sale you need to take the total cost per part and divide by the number of finished products you can get out of that part. If you are selling glasses and you get 6 in a box at a cost of 6 dollars then the cost is 1 dollar a glass. If you are putting a design on the glass say from a piece of fabric and the fabric cost 2 dollars a yard and you can get 4 glass out of the yard the total cost per glass is 50 cents so your glasses total cost is \$ 1.50 and so on for all parts included in the finished product. You must also figure in the cost discussed below.

ADVERTISING if it cost you a dollar to advertise you need to set a markup of say .01 cents per pen so total cost is now 36 cents if sold at \$ 1 dollar you could make 64 cent per pen but there's more cost.

BANK FEES if a credit card was used for the purchase you have a charge from the credit card gateway as well as the bank so lets say together the fees for the sale are 35 cents. Now add that to the advertising and pen cost and now your pens total cost is 71 cents. If you sell the pen at \$ 1 dollar you could make 29 cents per pen but there's more cost. NOTE the bank and gateway charges will vary by dollar amount of transaction.

SHIPPING FEES will be charged to the customer at purchase. This will vary by size, weight, carrier, and shipping zone. If you use a shipping calculator then you are set. If you do not use a shipping calculator you need to set a shipping charge. To find out what to charge if you have the product on hand take it to the shipper you plan to use and find out what it would cost to ship farthest away from you and either charge that as a flat fee for all or find a spot in between your lowest and highest points. Another good way to judge this is by looking at other sites and see what they are charging to ship. If you decide to ship for free this adds onto the your pens cost.

LOAN or CREDIT CARD – If you used a loan or credit card to open the business you need to figure your monthly payment into the cost of your pen. If your payment is \$ 50 a month then you need to figure out a reasonable amount of markup to help offset this cost. If you set a markup of 50 cents per pen your total cost is now \$ 1.21 if you sell it at \$ 1 you have lost 21 cents a pen and you must sell 100 pens to make your payment for the 50 dollar month so you would lose \$ 21 dollars .

RENT – You will pay some sort of rent (website or store) you need to figure out a reasonable amount of markup to help offset this cost. If a website cost \$ 29 dollars a month and you set a markup of 30 cents per pen you must sell 100 pens to make your rent for the month.

INK AND PAPER – If 2 ink cartridges cost you \$ 50 dollars a month and paper cost you \$ 10 dollars a month your total cost is \$ 60 dollars. If you set up a markup of 60 cents per pen you must sell 100 pens to pay for the ink and paper cost for the month.

CAUTION you must be careful to not over price your pen or no one will buy it. A good way to do this is to find like pens and see what they are selling for and make your decision to charge more or less according to what you find.

Question: How do you determine what your real cost is?

I use spread sheets to figure my real cost. Set up a column for advertising, credit card or loan, rent. One sheet should give you monthly cost. So advertising is \$ 1, loan / credit card \$ 50, rent \$ 30, ink and paper \$ 60, so your monthly cost is \$ 141 dollars.

I also make another sheet and on this sheet I play with the price of our pen. I use our set price and put in sale prices or discount to see just how much I can put the pen on sale for because everyone likes a bargain and the goal is to sell a lot of pens.

For help on promoting your online business read my other article. Website Promotion Services – for the New Online Business Owner it contains many free and useful tips.

Businesses fail because they did not look at the whole picture. Someone opens a business and thinks just like the first paragraph says that they will make 65 cents a pen, they forget about the little stuff like ink, paper, advertising and other nickel and dime items and these other items can directly affect the profit or loss of your business. That is why you need to figure out your real cost. The example above does not include everything as there will always be something small that will come up.

I've worked all my life and figure if I work as hard for myself as I do for other people then I CAN NOT fail. My business is growing and I look forward to quitting my job. PS writing this article is a free form of advertising while helping others learn how to start a business.

## Self Motivation and Its Importance

Self motivation is very important. There are several reasons for self motivation being so important in a person’s life. Everyone needs to be self motivated.

These days, with so many challenges and a lot of competition one needs to survive, self motivation works like confidence enhancer. It boosts once enthusiasm and provides energy to work.

Self motivation is known as the most important factor in your life. If you are looking for success in any area of your life, you need self motivation. Self motivation plays an important role in enhancing your self esteem. It cultivates a desire to do something in life. Experts in the past have believed and even proved that when self motivation is combined with self determination, one can easily move mountains and find water in deserts.

There are several things one can get motivated with. People get motivated by their strong belief in the almighty. They can even get motivated by an experience they have had or by any other factor. These things just encourage you to change your perspective in life. One can change in to a better person or a better business person with self motivation.

People usually go through happy and sad times in their lives. When thing go awry, you need to support yourself, your family and people around you. This needs a good amount of energy force in you. When providing support and encouragement to your family and friends, you need to be really strong.

Some people are lucky to have good support in the times of pathos. However, some are left alone and require a lot of courage to survive tough times. At such times, one need to get motivates or motivates oneself. Lack of self motivation at such times can be damaging and even complicate your life further.

Mentioned below are some strong reasons on why you require self motivation:

o Self motivation is extremely important when it comes to accepting challenges and opportunities in life.

o The force of self motivation helps in planning your life and easing the difficulties.

o Self motivation provides a new sense of purpose and direction to your life.

o Self motivation is important to provide enthusiasm in life.

o Self motivation lets you live a fulfilling life.

o You can empower and encourage yourself to face tough times and competition in life with the help of self motivation.

o Self motivations fill you with positive energy and boost your enthusiasm.

o Self motivation is important for your existence. It provides you an identity for yourself.

Motivation is a kind of driving force that encourages an individual to get going. It is a kind of boost to the self confidence, faith and inner conscience of a person. All of us look for some kind of motivation in life. It is almost impossible to face a competition, achieve success of accomplish a goal without motivation.

## Is Bikram Yoga Safe For Knees After Surgery?

Knee surgery for a torn meniscus or entire knee replacement sometimes becomes imperative; its rehabilitation takes about seven to eight weeks; by that time any inflammation, redness or pain will be taken care of; as soon as you are able to put your weight on your affected leg without pain, you are ready for Bikram (hot) yoga. It is better to go slow in the beginning- right after the surgery- if there is any indication of redness, swelling or soreness, remember to ice it. Also avoid stretching or bending the leg too far. In Bikram yoga an hour and a half of performance of very challenging poses, in a room kept at 105 degrees Fahrenheit and humidity level at forty percent, produces profuse perspiration to relieve the body of all toxic wastes. It also increases the strength and elasticity in knees after surgery; and prevents injuries in future

Rewards of Bikram Yoga after Surgery

• Strengthens inner and outer quadriceps
• Strong inner, outer, upper and lower muscles support the weak knee
• Increased blood flow and nutrients for the affected knee

Knee Protection while Performing Yoga

After knee surgery, one might want to return to one’s lifestyle quickly, it is important to do so with extreme caution. Adopting wrong poses or pushing beyond limits can further endanger your knees. To practice Bikram yoga as you are recuperating, keep the following in mind.

• Keep your feet well placed and aligned. Push down through all four corners of your feet for most of the asanas. If your feet are not in the right position, your knees will be affected adversely.
• Your knees should be in line with your ankles, not moving out over them. This is important especially for lunges and knee bends. The knee must be directing towards the middle toe. In standing extended-leg forward fold, remember to pull up on the arches of the feet.
• Some postures in Bikram yoga require locking the knees, refrain from that after surgery; you may pull in the knee-caps to take up a pose. If you need to hyperextend your knees for a certain pose, do so by keeping the knees slightly bent in most standing and forward folding positions.
• If your hips are not opened up or extended fully, your knees will have to bear extra pressure during most of the standing postures. You must open your hips early in a class to avoid putting this strain on your knees.

Bikram yoga practitioners who have gone through knee surgery must take extra care to perform certain poses. Hero’s pose if not performed rightly can pull at the knee-ligaments, while done properly, proves beneficial in healing the knees. In Triangle pose there is a risk of locking or hyper-extending your knees. In Seated-Forward Fold, bend your knees a little to avoid any further damage to your knee. To practice Child’s pose, put a blanket between your buttocks and calves to reduce strain on your affected knee. As this branch of yoga puts a great emphasis on patience, you must remember to be patient and allow enough time for your body to heal fully before you put it through a demanding regimen.

## A Valuable Review of "Alternative Investing: Making Money Outside the Stock Market"

During the economic recession in September and October 2008, most investors lost a lot of money due to a huge banking crisis which caused the stock market to crash. For those with most of their money in the stock market, the crash became a catastrophic nightmare. In many cases, people lost everything, not just in the stock market, but in most other investments as well.

In 2012, financial investigator, Robert Cancellaro published a book that challenges what most investors would say, “Nope”. “Bad idea”, “Won’t work.” Alternative Investing: Making Money outside the Stock Market introduces a revolutionary idea that “collectibles” are better investments than traditional investments, like the stock market. Collectibles have no financial ties to the stock market, but they have the financial strength to make money.

Cancellaro investigates seven categories of collectibles that have historically gone up in value. The following categories are known as tangible assets – items you can hold and definitely hold onto autographs, postage stamps, precious metals and coins, comic books, sports cards, and investment-grade wine. Why did the author choose these “misfit” collectibles as investments? Answer: They have consistently outperformed the S & P 500 by a large margin.

All seven categories include their own lists of specific items that have consistently increased in value over their lifetime and have held steady appeal to those who have bought them. However, before you buy anything, it’s important to learn as much about collectibles as you can. The Internet has an endless number of resources; the most important ones are included in Cancellaro’s book. In addition to the Internet, you can visit and search libraries or bookstores to look for books that contain general information and price guides.

The keys that drive collectibles’ values are based on the fact they are tangible. In other words, it can be touched, making them a part of the law of low supply and high demand. So, the items in Cancellaro’s list are hard to find yet they are popular and many people want them, which increases their value. For some collectibles, their conditions are extremely important; the better the condition, the more valuable it might be. The items in Cancellaro’s lists are expensive. If you want the item, you may have to pay a lot, but its value will most likely go up over a period of time. Above all, time is your most important ally because the longer you keep it the more value it adds to your collectible. So it is important to protect your collection safely from the elements and stay in the same condition you bought it.

Autographs, postage stamps, precious metals and coins, comic books, sports cards and investment-grade wine can become part of your investment strategy. You should not always trust the stock market; it can go up just as much as it can go down, whereas collectibles’ values have remained more stable. Obtaining information is a must for buying trustworthy collectibles that keep their value. Not only is it a sensible and clever move now, but it will also financially protect you against the next stock market catastrophe or world financial crisis. Also, Cancellaro lists specific recommendations on what to buy in all seven categories. When the economy sinks the next time, don’t squander your money in the stock market. So, choose carefully, buy and keep an alternative investment.

## What Makes a Good Day at Work?

Many of us have to work for a living. We need money to cover our overheads and responsibilities, hopefully with some left over for a few treats and incidental expenses along the way. Earning enough in the best way we can may well be the main preoccupation in our minds.

So often we feel compelled to make compromises when it comes to our work; we may take on a role we don’t especially like, feel obliged to humour a difficult boss, commute large distances, keep unsociable hours in order to retain our work position. For a time this may be a necessary negotiation, it’s vital in order to keep the different areas of our life afloat.

Some days will be better than others, so what makes a good day at work?

– Someone smiling as we walk through the door can lift our spirits, particularly if, prior to arriving at work, our day has already been rather fraught. I’m reminded of one of my clients who managed a large call centre. Her mission at the start of each working day was to identify the most frazzled member of her team, then go and sit chatting with them until they started to smile. That simple action improved everyone’s day.

– Planning the day ahead can be a good way to ensure that we start each day in the right frame of mind. Sometimes unexpected challenges or opportunities may arise, but having a to-do list can provide a structure for our efforts.

– When we achieve what we set out to do it’s always a good day at work. That may be because we’ve done something we know we’re good at. We can relax as we aim to do it exceptionally well. Yes, there’s the stress to do a good job, especially if we’re regarded as an expert in our field. There’s the motivation to excel and not let ourselves down, but when we’re comfortable with the skills required we can enjoy performing those tasks. Remember too to congratulate yourself on what you achieve.

– Feeling there’s some flexibility to accommodate new demands, emergencies and opportunities can help us manage stress and have a good day. It’s important that we’re not working to full capacity all the time. Being able to adapt whenever an unexpected or attractive new request comes along can bring an enthusiastic, motivated feeling to the day.

– When we’ve been significantly challenged and come through, perhaps had to acquire new skills and dig deep, it can really improve our confidence and self-esteem. Doing something we’re not sure about, maybe being new to a task, means that we may have to learn something in stages, undergo some training. Practising, challenging ourselves, making mistakes, moving out of our comfort zone can be uncomfortable at first but can ultimately lead to a good day at work. We can then start to feel better, more proficient, having achieved something unexpected.

– Ever put off doing something you dread or don’t like? This can impact on your health and wellbeing as those tasks are unlikely to disappear by themselves. Once you start to tackle them it can bring a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. Most of us have jobs that we’re not too eager to tackle; admin and book-keeping certainly head-up my list. But doing a little each day or allocating a particular time each week to keep on top of those tasks can result in a good day at work. This helps you better manage stress, which supports your health and overall wellbeing

– Appreciation can be an important component in having a good day at work. Someone’s perhaps listened to our suggestions and taken them on board or has noticed how hard we’ve worked and has given recognition and credit where it’s due. None of us can fully appreciate the effort and sacrifices that someone may have made when undertaking a task for us. Gratitude and a simple acknowledgement demonstrates good manners and can make a significant difference to each other’s day.

– Quality interactions with others are important too, especially for those who work from home, where they may sometimes go for days without seeing a friendly face. It’s important to set aside time to meet others, perhaps through networking or scheduling a coffee or a short break to catch up and discuss challenges and experiences. Ensure you reinforce your relationships with friends and colleagues as well as at home, meeting with people who like you, are supportive and are interested in talking to you about you in a non-work-related way.

A good day at work can have many elements to it. Doing a good job, where you deliver what your client or customer is looking for, perhaps anticipating their needs and being recognised as skilled, maybe even an expert, is certainly one positive way. Also important is investing in your relationships both at work and at home, so establishing a good support network around you.

Don’t forget to allow a little time away from work for yourself, time to enjoy your hobbies and interests, read a book or maybe just sit and enjoy a coffee doing nothing. That too contributes to your day at work being all the more fulfilling and positive an experience.

## Securing a Small Business Loan

Insufficient funding is one of the top reasons why 80% of businesses fail within the first year and a half. As a business owner, not only do you have to cover all operating expenses, but the time and effort needed to succeed means you will almost certainly have to bid farewell to your day job and regular pay checks. Unless you’ve saved up enough to pay for everything for at least 18 months, you will probably have to find other sources of funding.

So what can you do to have a better chance at securing a loan?

As the saying goes, “The devil is in the details.” Given the stricter requirements of banks, you will need to come up with a very convincing plan that shows your business will truly make a profit. Each number presented has to be supported by hard evidence or at least some realistic projections backed by in-depth research. There must also be a clear plan as to where the money will go and how it will influence your business’s success.

Aside from this, your entire personal finances will also be scrutinized, so make sure your taxes, mortgages, credit cards, assets and liabilities, and even your credentials are all spotless and in order.

The bottom line is, if you believe in your business idea and do the necessary due diligence in coming up with a sound budget and business plan, there should be no reason to be denied a small business loan. Otherwise, you may want to reconsider quitting your day job.

The Mini Moto is a small scale replica of the World Super Bikes used by the likes of Valentino Rossi and ex champion Carl Fogarty. The Mini Moto comes equipped with either a two stroke air or water cooled engine which are, depending on the model, capable of speeds of up to 60Mph.

In this article I will underline the finer points of the components that make these speeds possible.

The two Stroke Engine

The two stroke engine produces more hp per pound than the four stroke engine. The two stroke engine consists of three moving parts, the piston, the rod and the crank. The piston acts as valve that opens and closes the intake and exhaust ports that are located on the walls of the cylinder. Unlike the four stroke engine that fires only every other time of the pistons movement, the two stoke engine fires every time the piston reaches the top of its travel. This means that the time spent generating power is doubled in the two stroke engine than that of the four stroke engine, as there is no engine coasting during passive cycles. This is the main reason that the two stroke engine can rev more highly and produce more power (for its size) that the four stroke.

Fuel

The two stroke engine needs to be run on a mixture of petrol and two stroke oil. This is so that the engine is kept lubricated whilst in use.

99% of all starting problems are caused by fuel problems. These can stem from bad or old fuel and improperly mixed fuel (please see mixing chart).

Do not use fuels that contain alcohol, as the can cause you bike to run ‘lean’. Be advised some racing fuels contain alcohol and are best avoided..

We recommend that you use normal petrol for a garage and a quality two stroke oil.

A mixture that is too lean I.e not enough two stroke oil can damage your mini moto’s engine as the moving parts are not properly lubricated. This can cause the engine to seize. However a mixture that is too rich can choke the engine and effect the performance and cause starting problems. You can tell if your mini moto is running too richly by the plumes of white smoke coming out of the exhaust and the lack of performance. A rich mixture (25:1) is needed to lubricate the engine during the ‘run in’ period, you may experience a lack of performance during this period. The pocket bike may run more slowly and acceleration can be sluggish, however when you change to a mixture of 50:1 you will really notice a difference. The leaner mix ignites in the combustion chamber faster and with a more explosive force than the richer mix. This means higher revs which means more power and acceleration.

We recommend that a fuel mixture of 25:1 is used to ‘run in’ you mini moto, and a mixture of 50:1 is used thereafter.

‘Running in’

Your mini moto should be ‘run in’ for the first 3-4 tanks of fuel. During this period we recommend that you use a fuel mixture of 25:1. This means a mixture that is made up of 25 parts petrol to 1 part of two stroke oil. During the ‘running in’ period be careful to not rev the engine to its maximum as this can damage the engine. The ‘running in’ period will allow the moving parts to become well oiled and the clutch and brakes to ‘bed’ themselves in. After you have run the minimoto on this fuel mixture for 3-4 tanks, check the chain and tighten accordingly, check the tyre pressure, tighten the bolts on the brakes, forks and wheels. You may also need to readjust the throttle settings to allow for the higher revs that changing to a leaner fuel mix produces. The bike should now be ready for a fuel mixture of 50:1.

Clutch

The mini moto uses a centrifugal clutch to power the drive the sprocket, which in turn drives the back wheel of your mini moto.

When you start your mini moto the clutch spins as the engine ticks over . The clutch is engaged when you pull back on the throttle. The increase in speed of revolution of the clutch makes the clutch expand and grip the inside of the clutch bell which turns the sprocket that drives the back wheel of your pocket bike.

The clutch can be set up in different ways depending on the type of performance that you want from your minimoto. Adjustable clutches are not standard on mini moto’s but an after market Polani or Blata style adjustable clutch can be used in your new mini moto. These allow the rider to adjust the mini moto’s set up in according to their preference. Setting the clutch to engage too late when the engine has built up too much power may cause the clutch to slip and never fully engage. This can result in excessive wearing. However setting the clutch to engage too early, before the power has built up in the engine can cause your pocket bike to ‘bog down’, resulting in slow acceleration. The perfect set up is to get the clutch to engage just as the engine has built enough power to rocket the mini moto away, but without making the clutch slip, this is achievable through trial and error.

Spark Plug

Making sure that your spark plug is fresh is important in a two stroke mini moto engine. You can tell a lot from the colour of the spark plug. The top part of your spark plug is covered in ceramic insulator which, when brand new is white. This part of the spark plug can change colour according to how your engine is running. The plug should appear as a nice tan colour when the engine is running perfectly, this indicates complete combustion. A greyish or white colour indicates that the engine is running too lean which can result in engine damage. In this case you should clean and check your fuel system for any obstruction, check your fuel mixture, check for loose intake manifold bolts and carburettor mounting leeks, faulty gaskets and leaking crank seals. Anywhere that your engine could potentially leek and suck in fresh air can be the source of a lean condition.

A blackened or oily spark plug indicates improper combustion and is the result of running too rich. This can be caused by too much oil in the mixture or the spark plug could be faulty and misfiring. Check the fuel mixture and replace the spark plug.

Air Filter

Your new mini moto is equipped with an air filter. Some bikes such as the B1 Origami rep liquid cooled and the Mini Dirt bike have a ‘cone’ style K and N style air filter. The 2005 mk2 mini moto and the B1 Origami Replica air cooled bikes have a standard mini moto air filter. Both air filters purify the intake of air that is sucked into the carburettor. This means that the air filter should be cleaned regularly as the mini moto’s performance can begin to suffer as the engine can become starved of air if the air filter is choked with debris. To reach the air filter, remove the bikes bottom fairing, remove the protective cover by unscrewing the holding screws. Clean the air filter in petrol but make sure that the filter is dry before reattaching to you mini moto.

Tyres

The tyres on your mini moto are filled with air (pneumatic). Please consult your mini moto handbook for the appropriate psi. It is important to check the tyre pressure regularly, an under inflated tyre will affect the performance of your mini moto, acceleration can become sluggish and cornering can become dangerous.

Chain

Before riding your mini moto you need to make sure that the front and back sprockets are aligned and that the chain is perfectly straight running between them. Once you have established this make sure that the chain is tensioned correctly (please see your mini moto handbook). To test the tension of the chain you can manually push the pocket bike, if you hear a ‘pinging’ or ‘popping’ sound the chain is too loose. If the chain is noisy and starts to bind the chain is too tight.

Make sure that the chain is well oiled. The chain needs to be oiled before every ride.

Gearing

The gearing of you mini moto is dictated by the number of the teeth on the front sprocket and on the back sprocket. The sprockets can be changed as an easy way to manipulate top end speed and acceleration, quite like changing gear on a mountain bike. A front sprocket with more teeth will improve acceleration, however the top end speed will be reduced. A larger rear sprocket will produce a higher top speed but acceleration will suffer. The gearing on your bike can be adjusted in accordance for the track you are intending to ride I.e. a small track with a lot of bends will suit gearing for improved acceleration, however a track with long straights will require a mini moto that is geared for a higher top speed.

Throttle

The throttle on your new mini moto is a ‘twist grip’ style throttle. When you twist the throttle the throttle cable is pulled back revving the engine. It is important to keep this cable free from obstacles and clean. If the throttle begins to feel ‘loose’ of ‘gives’, the tension of the cable can be adjusted via the adjusting screw.

Brakes

The brake system comprises of brake levers, brake cables, brake callipers and brake discs.

The brakes on your mini moto are operated by levers found on the handle bars. The right hand brake controls the front brake, and the left controls the back brake. Pulling on the handle pulls the brake cable which in turn pulls the lever located on the bake calliper. This action pushes the brake discs towards each other. This creates friction on the brake disc which slows down or stops the bike.

The brakes can be adjusted in the following ways.

The brake cable can be tensioned using the adjustment screw found on the brake lever. Unscrew the locking nut, twist the screw to reach the desired tension. Re screw the locking nut.

This is a two person job. Adjust the screw on the hand brake so that is at the end of its travel. Undo the clamp that holds the brake cable on the lever located on the brake calliper. One person needs to push the lever forward as far as it will, the second person needs to pull back on the brake cable and re fasten the clamp. The crake cable will now be highly tensioned.

Pull Start

To start the mini moto pull slowly to turn the fly wheel. This pumps some fuel around the engine, which lubricates the moving parts. Pull the pull start firmly in order to start the engine. Important, do not pull the cord to the end of its run as it can break. If the mini moto does not start check the choke and the throttle cable.

Choke

The choke controls the amount of air that is allowed into the air/fuel mix. The choke is adjusted via a lever located on the side and back of the engine. The choke is off when the lever is down, and on when the lever is up.

When you start the mini moto the choke should be on, when the mini moto is warm and ready to ride the choke needs to be off.

Carburettor

It is recommend that any adjustments to the carburettor are made by a professional. The carburettor pumps and mixes the fuel and air. The small diaphragms, orifices and ports mix the air and fuel very precisely, this process demands clean fresh fuel.

Jet

The jet can be adjusted by the screw located in the access hole to the right of the choke lever. The jet is adjusted by the manufacture however the conditions of where you wish to ride may be different, which means that you will need to make adjustments. Turning the screw clockwise will make the bike run with a leaner mixture, and counter clockwise will richen the mixture. Only adjust the screw 1 tern a at time and then test the mini moto, this is trail and error. Please note that it is best to find the optimum setting for performance and then run a slightly richer mixture as a mix that is too lean can seize the engine.

## A Sneak Peek Into the Similarities and Differences Between Java and JavaScript

Both Java and JavaScript are commonly used web technologies. The similarities between their names often make beginners feel that JavaScript and Java are related. Java is an object-oriented, concurrent, and class-based, general purpose programming language, whereas JavaScript is an interpreted programming language. JavaScript is used widely as a client-side scripting language along with HTML and CSS, while Java is used by developer to build desktop GUI applications, websites and Android mobile apps. So it is important for programmers to understand the similarities and differences between the two popular technologies.

Similarities between Java and JavaScript

As a popular client-side scripting language, JavaScript makes it easier for programmers to enhance a website’s user experience without putting additional load on server. Code written in this language can run on major web browsers. Likewise, Java applets can also run on most web browsers. But many programmers avoid these applets due to security and compatibility issues.

Java is used by developers for creating a wide variety of client-server web applications. The programming language runs smoothly on several web servers including Apache Tomcat, WebSphere and JBoss. Despite being used widely as a client-side scripting language, JavaScript can also be used on the server side through Node.js. The massive popularity of Node.js has resulted in the emergence of several web servers powered by JavaScript.

Both Java and JavaScript have many libraries and frameworks. These frameworks and libraries help developers to reduce coding time significantly. Likewise, the developers also have option to reuse the code shared by communities to avoid writing any additional code. The libraries and frameworks further contribute towards making the web technologies popular and current.

Differences between Java and JavaScript

Normally, Java code is written using an integrated development environment (IDE), and then compiled into bytecode. No human being can read or understand the bytecode. The bytecode can be read and understood only by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). On the other hand, JavaScript code is directly executed by the web browsers as written by the programmers. However, many programmers nowadays use tools to reduce the size of JavaScript files, and hence make the code unreadable.

The bytecode makes Java code platform-independent. The programmers can run the same code on different platforms without making any modification. But JavaScript code is executed directly by the web browsers. So it can be impacted by browser-compatibility issues. Often developers have to use JQuery (i.e., a JS library) to handle the browser incompatibility issues.

Java is a static typed language wherein the variable types are declared at the time of compilation. The variables can further accept values permitted for the specific type. JavaScript, on the other hand is a dynamic typed language which allows programmers to declare variables with various value types including string, numeric and Boolean.

Working on a 100% object-oriented and class-based programming language, companies offering enterprise Java development services can use various OOP concepts to make the code reusable. This feature endears it to programmers who use it to create large and complex web applications. Despite supporting class and object, JavaScript is not fully object-oriented.

JavaScript supports closure in a manner similar to anonymous functions. The support enables programmers to pass a function as an argument to another function. But Java does not provide direct support to closures. The developers have option to use anonymous class to simulate closure. However, Java 8 supports lambda expressions to make it easier for developers to pass function as an argument to another function.

While creating websites, developers cannot use JavaScript independently. Nowadays programmer use JS along with HTML5 and CSS3 to create modern websites and web applications. But Java is can be used independently as a programming language for building a variety of applications. At present, the programming language is used widely for development of web applications and mobile apps.

On the whole, JavaScript is not part of the Java platform. The programmers can use each of them independently based on the requirements of individual projects. However, Java SE 8 is designed with Nashorn Javascript Engine, which enables developers to run dynamic JavaScript code natively on the Java Virtual Machine. So the developers now have option to call JavaScript functions directly from Java code.

## Motivation – Internal and External Motivators

Internal / Intrinsic Motivators:

Your motivation to accomplish your goal comes from within. It is determined by your personal values ​​and goals. The drive to do something because it is interesting, challenging, and absorbing is essential for high levels of creativity. Enjoyment based internal motivation is the strongest and most pervasive driver as is a belief that it is a good or right thing to do. Often it is something we pursue even without a tangible result.

• Examples: Reading a nonfiction book because you are curious about the topic, or playing chess because you enjoy effortful thinking are internal motivation examples.

With internal motivation, it is much easier to stay motivated. Trying to find some internal value in everything you have to do can improve your overall performance and pleasure.

External / Extrinsic Motivators:

Your motivation to attain your goal comes from a source outside yourself. It reflects the desire to do something because of external rewards such as awards, money, and praise. People who are extrinsically motivated may not enjoy certain activities but engage in them because they wish to receive some external reward.

• Examples: The person who dislikes sales but accepts a sales position because he / she desires to earn an above average salary or selecting a major in college based on salary and prestige, rather than personal interest in the major are samples of external motivation.

It drives one to do things for tangible rewards or pressures, rather than for the fun of doing it. Performing tasks to look good or to please others can be difficult to maintain. It focuses people on the reward and not the action. In effect, extrinsic motivations can change something pleasurable into work.

When are you most effective? When are you so engaged that hours feel like minutes? What is the balance for you?

## 7 Ways To Spend Less On Your Home Insurance Policy

Property is a prized possession, and to safeguard it from unexpected damages in the event of fire, flood, earthquake, etc. getting a home insurance is always necessary. However, if your existing health policy is exhausting your monthly income, listed below are a few sure shot ways with which you can control your home insurance costs:

1. Shop around: The decision of buying a home insurance policy should not be taken in haste. Instead, you must explore and make a list of insurance policies that are being offered by various insurance providers. You may also get insurance quotes online to estimate the costs of different policies. Choose a reliable company from which you can buy the comprehensive home insurance plan that suits your needs, and of course, your budget.

2. Increase your deductibles: Deductibles is the fraction of the claim that you have to pay before your insurer pays the claim as per the terms of the policy. The higher the deductibles you set, the lower premiums you will have to pay every month. However, you must set the deductibles as high you can afford.

3. Locate intelligently: Purchase the property in a strategic location but make sure that it is based away from the damage-prone areas. Reason being, if you live in a disaster-prone areas where flood, storm or earthquakes are a common occurrence, there are chances that your home insurance policy may have a separate deductible for such kind of damages.

4. Avoid making small claims: This is the most common mistake that many people make. You exhaust your policy in small claims thus leaving no room for bigger loss protection. Rather it is advised to deal with smaller issues on your own and keep this policy to protect your home from bigger catastrophic losses.

5. Improve home security: To avoid getting your home damaged from little mishaps, it is suggested to increase the security in your home by installing devices like smoke detectors, burglar alarm, etc.

6. Merge Policies with one Insurer: Just like you pool your internet, phone, and TV package, you can also merge your insurance policies with one insurer. Buy your health insurance, homeowners, life, and auto insurance plan from one insurance company and come out cheaper by bundling these insurance products together. You may also buy policies in a package that is less expensive as compared to single policies. It also liberates you from the trouble of policy renewal.

7. Eliminate Unnecessary Coverage: Don’t buy the coverage you don’t need. Like earthquake coverage is often unnecessary in most zones, don’t include jewelry if it is at a catchpenny price etc. Also exclude a land value from your policy. Covering land on which your house is constructed is simply of no use as it is unlikely that your land will be stolen or burnt is fire. So to save big, insure the value of your home only.

There are many insurance providers who offer age and profession discounts as well. Some times there certain discounts for retirees and people with good credit rating. Never eliminate the coverage that is important just to save your money as spending extra on important services will benefit you in the long run.