- How is dilution factor calculated?
- How do plaques form during a phage overlay assay?
- What are the methods for determining the number of bacteriophage in a sample?
- Is there an ideal environment for collecting samples that contain bacteriophages?
- Where can we find bacteriophage?
- Why would sewage contain phage?
- What does Moi mean?
- What is a phage titre?
- What are the characteristics of bacteriophages?
- How do you detect a bacteriophage?
- How do you calculate Moi?
- How do you collect bacteriophages?
- What is phage buffer?
- How is EOP calculated?
- How do you calculate concentration in phage?
- How do you identify a virus titer?
- How do you calculate Moi from tcid50?
- How does phage typing work?
How is dilution factor calculated?
For example, a 1:5 dilution (verbalize as “1 to 5” dilution) entails combining 1 unit volume of solute (the material to be diluted) + 4 unit volumes of the solvent medium (hence, 1 + 4 = 5 = dilution factor)..
How do plaques form during a phage overlay assay?
The spread of infectious phage from the initially infected bacterial cell to the surrounding cells results in the lysis of the bacteria in the vicinity, eventually forming the plaque that is large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Plaques do not continue to spread indefinitely.
What are the methods for determining the number of bacteriophage in a sample?
Traditionally, three methods have been used to quantitate bacteriophages: (1) plaque counts on agar plates seeded with the bacteria in which the phages can propagate, (2) a dilution method, where bacterial lysis is used as an indicator of phage presence and (3) measuring the length of time required to lyse a …
Is there an ideal environment for collecting samples that contain bacteriophages?
Mycobacteriophages are likely to be found where mycobacteria are found. Thus, soil that is not conducive to bacterial growth (e.g., cold, dry, acidic) is less likely to yield a phage. Conversely, areas where high bacterial growth might be (damp, aerated, warm, decaying soil) are good places to collect samples.
Where can we find bacteriophage?
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. Also known as phages (coming from the root word ‘phagein’ meaning “to eat”), these viruses can be found everywhere bacteria exist including, in the soil, deep within the earth’s crust, inside plants and animals, and even in the oceans.
Why would sewage contain phage?
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. They can be found wherever bacteria are found. Sewage is a rich source of bacteriophages that infect enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli. … If phages are in the sewage sample they will go thru many cycles of infection and lyse the Escherichia coli.
What does Moi mean?
Mechanism of InjuryMechanism of Injury (MOI) and its Role in the World of the LNC.
What is a phage titre?
The viral titer is a quantitative measurement of the biological activity of your virus and is expressed as plaque forming units (pfu) per ml. To calculate the viral titer, … These plaques are patches of dead bacteria, and each plaque represents one virus.
What are the characteristics of bacteriophages?
Characteristics of bacteriophages Like all viruses, phages are simple organisms that consist of a core of genetic material (nucleic acid) surrounded by a protein capsid. The nucleic acid may be either DNA or RNA and may be double-stranded or single-stranded.
How do you detect a bacteriophage?
Methods for Detection of Infectious Bacteriophages Plaque counting is considered the golden standard for phage enumeration. The double agar overlay assay (DLA) allows localized phage-host contact in a confined environment (Petri dish) containing two layers of agar on top of each other.
How do you calculate Moi?
MOI is related to pfu by the following formula: Multiplicity of infection (moi) = Plaque forming units (pfu) of virus used for infection / number of cells. For example, if 2×106 cells is infected by 50 ml of virus with a titer of 108 pfu/ml. The moi will be 0.05*108/2*106 = 2.5.
How do you collect bacteriophages?
How do you isolate a bacteriophage (phage) and obtain a pure phage preparation? This is achieved by plating a phage suspension using the double agar method, and a susceptible host strain, to obtain plaques and further purifying the phage contained within the plaque.
What is phage buffer?
A plate lysate is simply a concentrated liquid sample of phage. It is obtained by infecting a plate of bacteria with the phage of interest, letting the phage lyse the cells, then adding buffer directly to the plate surface to collect the phages. … Plate lysates are the standard for long‐term storage of a phage sample.
How is EOP calculated?
EOP was calculated by dividing the titer of the phage at the terminal dilution on the test strain by the titer of the same phage on its isolation strain.
How do you calculate concentration in phage?
Use the formula: [Number of colonies counted] × 10 × [how many times the sample must be multiplied to get to the original concentration: for example, 105] = Number of colony forming units (CFU) per milliliter of starting culture. This is the bacterial growth in your petri dishes.
How do you identify a virus titer?
The titer of a virus stock can be calculated in plaque-forming units (PFU) per milliliter. To determine the virus titer, the plaques are counted. To minimize error, only plates containing between 10 and 100 plaques are counted, depending on the size of the cell culture plate that is used.
How do you calculate Moi from tcid50?
To do this, multiply the titer by 0.7. Since plaque forming units represents the estimated number of infectious units per volume of virus material, one can estimate the total number of infectous particles. Next, divide the number of infectious particles by the number of cells to be infected to obtain the MOI.
How does phage typing work?
Phage typing is a method used for detecting single strains of bacteria. … The viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages (“phages” for short) and some of these can only infect a single strain of bacteria. These phages are used to identify different strains of bacteria within a single species.